PURPOSE AND FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION:


This device is intended for gasification (gas production) of wood, its production waste or wood-based fuels. Then the obtained gas can be used in heating – through combustion in central heating boilers, or in electric energy generation – when cleaned, it is delivered to combustion engines that drive electric generators.
Chunk wood or wood chips, sawdust, wood waste from furniture factories or lumber yards, fermentation waste from biogas plant, rice husk, palm kernel shell, nut shell, etc. can be used as fuel when shredded and briquetted adequately, with granulation of 4 – 10 cm and with moisture of no more than 12%.
 
The offered gasifier is classified as a co-current fixed bed gasifier, which means that the flow direction of the generated gas is consistent with the fuel flow within the device.
The fuel is delivered in identical units and features the same parameters, as above. Maintaining the form of the fuel provides consistency in the flow of gasification products and also uniformity throughout the whole process. Depending on the form of the fuel chosen, either briquette or chunk wood, adequate loading systems should be used; for briquette – briquette transport system from briquetting machine into gasifier with use of bulkhead devices eliminating the entry of atmospheric air into the device; for chunk wood – a combination of e.g. bucket feeder with worm feeder and an intermediate chamber equipped with two pneumatically driven traps eliminating uncontrolled air intake into the gasifier.
The device's working principle is based on subpressure, i.e. subpressure of approx. 5mbar produced by the lighter during the start-up, and of approx. 20mbar during the operation the by blower fan supplying the air into incomplete combustion area causes the flow of gasification ingredients through carbonisation and reduction areas. As a result of this process pure and tar-free gas is obtained.
Within the gasification process four areas can be distinguished:
Drying Area
Incomplete Combustion Area
Carbonisation Area
Reduction Area
In the drying area, free water is evaporated at approx. 200°C and thus the delivered fuel is dried. In the carbonisation area, the thermal decomposition process takes place. Between 200 – 500°C the wood is decomposed and converted into char coal. Moreover, coal gas is made; it is composed mainly of long-chain hydrocarbons and CO2. The free water and other distillates, such as semi-volatile tars, methanol and organic acids are released. In the incomplete combustion area, at approx. 1200°C tars and other distillates are gasified/oxidized. The coal gas, produced in the carbonisation area, composed of higher hydrocarbons is cracked. In the reduction area, C reacts with CO2 and is reduced to CO, C and H2O to CO and H2, and also C and H2 to CH4.
The produced gas is extracted of dust by cyclones, and then, through pipe exchanger, is transferred for further processing. In the pipe exchanger, the gas heats the air fed into the incomplete combustion area to approx. 200°C, and at the same time, gets cooled down.
Gasifier is controlled and adjusted with central control panel connected to the device through the bus. Automatic control is performed depending on the gasifier's operating conditions.
The by-product of the gasification process is ash which is removed through ash pit. The device's reduction area is terminated at the bottom by movable grate. This grate performs cyclic angular motions within a specific range, so that free outflow of the produced gas (assumed output) is obtained. The ash ejection is adjusted to meet adequate gasifier's parameters. Below the grate, the gasifier becomes a funnel; the lower part of it is equipped with water jacket. It is used for ash cooling and the water heated using this method is suitable for e.g. heating.
The funnel-shaped generator's outlet is connected to the intermediate chamber with two pneumatically driven traps operating interchangeably to ensure that the gasifier is well isolated from the atmosphere, and additionally the intermediate chamber is neutralised with nitrogen before the upper trap (gasifier – intermediate chamber) is opened. For further ash cooling this chamber is also equipped with water jacket.
The ash ejected has particles size 0 – 15 mm and high carbon content. It is further cooled and briquetted.
 

 

Parameter

Type

GZ-250

GZ-500

Electric power1

kWe

250

500

Heat power with CHP2

kW

355

710

Wood consumption3

kg/h

245

490

Ash content

kg/h

5

10

Combustion gas flow

kg/h

1470

2949

Fuel input

kW

970

1940

Dimensions axbxh

m

3x2,8x5,8

3,5x3,2x6,6


Remarks:

  1. Electric power is measured on alternator's terminals – the gasifier operates within a system including engine and generator;
  2. Heat power as heat at 90°C (additionally heat with lower temperatures can be recovered) – the gasifier operates within a system including central heating boiler;
  3. Biomass consumption based on biomass from LHV with 4.4 kWh/kg (dry) and 10% moisture.

 

 

gazyfikator gazyfikator
gazyfikator

Reference explanation

  1. Gasifier's body – fuel tank;
  2. Support structure;
  3. Safety guard (barrier);
  4. Gasifier's core enclosure;
  5. Ash pit;
  6. Intermediate ash container;
  7. Fuel feeding system – here for briquette;
  8. Produced gas discharge – gas outlet;
  9. Pipe exchanger, combustion gases – air (heating up the air fed into the gasifier);
  10. Gas purifying cyclone unit;
  11. Lighter – process start-up;
  12. Ash discharge from cyclones;
  13. Installation for delivery of air to the gasifier – air inlet;
  14. Shut-off valve – explosion protection;
  15. Fuel feeding basket – internal;
  16. Gasifier's core;
  17. Movable grate;
  18. Grate cooling.


Gasifier's Areas
S1 – Drying Area;
S2 – Carbonisation (Thermal Decomposition) Area;
S3 – Incomplete Combustion Area;
S4 – Reduction Area.

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